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Penugasan Pada Pelatihan Jafung Sanitarian Materi "Teknik Menerjemahkan"



Health workers believe that  health problems and death because of poor sanitation can only be avoided if people change their lifestyle behaviors and if they always maintain their cleanliness. But promoting changes of behavior often fails because of the socio-economic conditions of their lives such as poverty or lack of clean water and adequate latrines.

A latrine is not just a hole in the ground.  It must be protected and have a door, which can  can be made from simple local materials.  It must meet health requirements, be well built and located in a secure place.  If poorly constructed, latrine would be dangerous to use.  And if it is far from the house or in an isolated location, women users may face sexual threats or harrassment when using it.  In addition, people prefer to use a squat toilet which is more comfortable and private.  They may also prefer to use latrines located near their houses and sheltered from heat, wind and rain.  To maintain its comfort, a latrine should not be dirty and smelly.   A community owning a latrine will gain higher status and respect.  This could be the main reason why people spend money and energy to build latrines.

However, in reality people are not aware of the importance of clean and healthy living behavior, especially in defecation.  In general, people are still accustomed to defecate into the river, gardens and other places that can cause health problems surrounding the landfills.  If this habit is allowed to continue, it will have an impact on public health such as diarrheal diseases and lost of the aesthetics because of the smell and flies.

Technically, the problem can be solved by building toilet in the house facilitated by health and local government.  These solutions, however, are not meant as an answer to the unhealthy tradition or conditions faced by communities in general.  What is needed, basically, is the counseling efforts to make people aware of the proper behavior in defecation.  Any solution must solve technical problems by understanding the culture and real needs of the society and not blaminfg them.  Environmentally-based diseases will persist if people continue to be blamed for their poor health or if the technical solutions offered ignore local conditions. To have sustainable health improvement, health officials must listen intently and work with people in the community to find solutions based on their needs, abilities, and their desire for change.




Water is a substance essential for the life of all beings on earth.   Approximately 71% of the earth contains water and our own bodies contain about 80% water.  There are even organs in our body that contain more than 80% water such as the brain (90%) and bloods with the water component of 95%.

Therefore, water is very precious goods because it has a very important purpose for our lives.   Today, we are unfortunate because we are facing a lot of problems arising out of lack of clean water.  In many areas, it is difficult to get clean water. People have to walk far away to fetch a a bucket of clean water to meet their daily needs.  Clean water is increasingly scarce and many problems arise mainly in urban areas because of that.  This include among others environmental pollution caused by human hands such as garbage containing plastics, detergents, DDT, and so on.  These wastes pollute the river water. 

Another problem is the bad littering habit among urban communities. They shamelessly throw garbage into the river, hindering its flow and causing bad smells.  In the rainy season, the river becomes flooded.  Further, it may cause outbreaks of flood-related diseases such as diarrhea, dysentery, dengue fever, worms, hepatitis A, and malaria.  Of course it contributes to the lack of clean water for daily needs today.

The nature itself actually can do the purification of contaminated water with natural water purification process.   Soil, sand, rocks, and microorganisms in the nature surrounding us can purify the contaminated water.  But because today’s pollution is excessive and severe, the nature is not able to return the water into its normal condition.

A simple thing that we can do to arouse public awareness of the issue is by educating them not to litter the river.  Also, educate the industrial world that each factory to be equipped an installation for waste water treatment plant to neutralize the waste so as not to pollute the environment, especially water.

One of the government's efforts to minimize clean water shortage in urban areas is to build clean water treatment plants with pipeline system using public taps to be maintained by the community.

Created By : Sukarya


Latrine is a room with facilities for human waste disposal.  There are three types of latrine: a) with swan neck, b) without swan neck where the waste just plunges into it, and c) sitting or squatting toilet bowl.  There is usually a water container in the room where water for cleaning is placed.

Family latrines are very important for healthy life.  If the toilet is not well-taken care of, it can cause environmentally-based diseases or sickness such as diarrhea, dysentery, intestinal worms, itching, vomitting, polio myelitis and hepatitis.   Therefore, latrines should be built in every community to ensure good health and sanitation of each of its members.

Requirements for a good latrine.  The Ministry of Health has set 7 conditions to be fulfilled for a healthy latrine:

1.   The water is free from contamination

  • When digging the dirt hole, the basic level should not reach the maximum ground water level.  If this is not possible, the sides and bottom of the dirt hole should be compacted with clay or plaster;
  • Distance between the dirt hole and the well should be at least 10 meters;
  • The dirt hole should be located lower than the well to avoid dirt leakage which will contaminate it;
  • There should be no waste water seeping into the well.

2.   Latrines should not contaminate the soil surface

  • Avoid defecating near the river, in the garden or yard, near the spring or along the road side;
  • When a latrine is full, immediately flow it into a drained droppings;
  1.  Latrine should be free from insects: a “plung” latrines, for example, should be kept closed to avoid flies or other animals which can become spreading agents of disease;
  2. A latrine should be free from odor or bad smell so as making convenient for its user.  After each use, the latrine should be watered and cleaned; therefore the toilet bath and the latrines should be close to each other
  3. A latrine should be safe to use, i.e. strong or not easily damaged or collapsed, and should have walls.
  4. A latrine should be easy to clean not causing nuisance to the user.
  5. A latrine should not cause indecent viewing.

Advantages of a latrine:

  1.  Human wastes are not scattered everywhere and will not contaminate water sources;
  2. Our environment is clean, healthy and free of odor;
  3. Easy and safe to use all the times.

Minimum requirements of health family latrines:
1. The distance between the manure storage pit is not less than 10 meters from the well / hand pump so as not to pollute the clean water.
2. No smell
3. Toilet large enough (at least 1m2),
4. The floor is not slippery and easy to clean
5. Light and there is proper ventilation

How to maintain family latrines:
1. Flush or clean dirt, immediately after use;
2. Clean the toilet and the floor; a broom or clening brush should always be available;
3. Fix parts of the family latrines that are damaged;
4. When the toilet is difficult to flush or get clogged, ask the environmental health caders or sanitarian or health clinic oficial to overcome it;

People who do not have or use family latrines mostly because they cannot afford to build them.  They prefer to defecate in the open space, in the rice field or river.  For them it is practical and because they do noknow the advantages of a jamban (latrine).  It is our challenge to change this attitude and behavior.

Created By : Fitri Anjani



Environmental diseases such as diarrhea, upper respiratory tract infection, dengue fever, etc. remain the biggest health problem in Indonesia.    The problem is due to poor basic sanitation in our society, one of the causes being household wastes.

           Household waste is the leftover of an activity or activities that cannot be used any longer.  It consists of organic and unorganic, which needs to be managed properly.  Organic wastes are such as vegetables, food scraps, rubbish from the garden and others; while unorganic one is like plastics, bottles, paper, cans and others.

One way to manage the organic waste is by composting it.  First, we need to sort out beetwen the organic and the unorganic one.  Then, the organic waste material is placed inside a container or a drum, which has been covered with a cushion containing chaff at the bottom.  Then, give an activator in the mix as a starter and place the pad containing the chaff.  On top, cover with a dark cloth. After less than 7 days, it has become compost and can be used.

             Composting can be started from a small scope such as households to larger communities such as the RT or RW levels.  The compost can be used as fertilizer and can be traded.  The public is expected to have the ability in household waste management.

Created By : Yuni Lestari



In Indonesia, waste management remains a serious problem. Each Indonesian produces an average of 2,5 kgs waste per day, totaling 7500 million kgs throughout the country. Soon people will see waste as a time bomb.  Within a decade or so, it is estimated that the waste will evict people from their homes because it will fill up the space.  Thus, good waste management is of prime importance.

A major factor contributing to the issue is people’s lack of knowledge and awareness to manage their household wastes.  Waste management is actually a simple process, and can be summarized in four R’s: reduce, reuse, recycle, and refuse.  This paper will illustrate the method for domestic waste recycling that is practical and doable by anybody in the family.

The simplest way is by composting. We can begin by separating organic from unorganic wastes.  Then after that the organic wastes can used to make compost.

The sequence is:

  1. Separate organic and from unorganic waste;
  2. Put organic wastes in the bin;
  3. Cover the organic wastes with the compost
  4. Cover the bin.

This problem is not just personal.  It is our problem. It needs teamwork and coordination among different sectors and also among functional groups.  Let us not linger and relax on this issue, making it a big problem like a time bomb.


Created By : Pipit Herawati

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